Home » Summary » Page 3


Spotlight Fallacy Summary

Description: Assuming that the media’s coverage of a certain class or category is representative of the class or category in whole. Logical Form: The media have been covering X quite a bit by describing it as Y. Therefore, X can be described as Y. Example #1: It seems like we… Read More »Spotlight Fallacy Summary

Spiritual Fallacy Summary

(also known as: spiritual excuse) Description: Insisting that something meant to be literal is actually “spiritual” as an explanation or justification for something that otherwise would not fit in an explanation. Logical Form: X makes no sense; therefore, X was meant in a “spiritual” sense. Example #1: Of course, the… Read More »Spiritual Fallacy Summary

Spin Doctoring Summary

(also known as: spinning) Description: Presenting information in a deceptive way that results in others interpreting the information in such a way that does not reflect reality but is how you want the information to be interpreted. Logical Form: X represents reality. Information is presented in such a way that… Read More »Spin Doctoring Summary

Special Pleading Summary

Description: Applying standards, principles, and/or rules to other people or circumstances, while making oneself or certain circumstances exempt from the same critical criteria, without providing adequate justification.  Special pleading is often a result of strong emotional beliefs that interfere with reason. Logical Form: If X then Y, but not when… Read More »Special Pleading Summary

Slippery Slope Summary

(also known as absurd extrapolation, thin edge of the wedge, camel’s nose, domino fallacy) Description: When a relatively insignificant first event is suggested to lead to a more significant event, which in turn leads to a more significant event, and so on, until some ultimate, significant event is reached, where… Read More »Slippery Slope Summary

Shoehorning Summary

Description: The process of force-fitting some current affair into one’s personal, political, or religious agenda.  Many people aren’t aware of how easy it is to make something look like confirmation of a claim after the fact, especially if the source of the confirmation is something in which they already believe,… Read More »Shoehorning Summary