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Appeal to Emotion Summary

(also known as: appeal to pathos, argument by vehemence, playing on emotions, emotional appeal, for the children) Description: This is the general category of many fallacies that use emotion in place of reason in order to attempt to win the argument.  It is a type of manipulation used in place… Read More »Appeal to Emotion Summary

Appeal to Desperation Summary

Description: Arguing that your conclusion, solution, or proposition is right based on the fact that something must be done, and your solution is “something.” Logical Form: Something must be done. X is something. Therefore, X must be done. Example #1: These are desperate times, and desperate times call for desperate… Read More »Appeal to Desperation Summary

Appeal to Definition Summary

(also known as: appeal to the dictionary, victory by definition) Description: Using a dictionary’s limited definition of a term as evidence that term cannot have another meaning, expanded meaning, or even conflicting meaning.  This is a fallacy because dictionaries don’t reason; they simply are a reflection of an abbreviated version… Read More »Appeal to Definition Summary

Appeal to Consequences Summary

Latin Name: argumentum ad consequentiam (also known as: appeal to consequences of a belief, argument to the consequences, argument from [the] consequences, appeal to convenience [form of], appeal to utility) Description: Concluding that an idea or proposition is true or false because the consequences of it being true or false… Read More »Appeal to Consequences Summary

Appeal to Common Folk Summary

(also known as: appeal to the common man) Description: In place of evidence, attempting to establish a connection to the audience based on being a “regular person” just like each of them.  Then suggesting that your proposition is something that all common folk believe or should accept. Logical Forms: X… Read More »Appeal to Common Folk Summary

Appeal to Common Belief Summary

Latin Name: argumentum ad populum (also known as: appeal to accepted belief, appeal to democracy, appeal to widespread belief, appeal to the masses, appeal to belief, appeal to general belief, appeal to the majority, argument by consensus, consensus fallacy, authority of the many, bandwagon fallacy, appeal to the number, argumentum… Read More »Appeal to Common Belief Summary

Appeal to Closure Summary

(also known as:  appeal to justice [form of]) Description: Accepting evidence on the basis of wanting closure—or to be done with the issue. While the desire for closure is a real psychological phenomenon that does have an effect on the well-being of individuals, using “closure” as a reason for accepting… Read More »Appeal to Closure Summary