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Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy Summary

(also known as: clustering illusion) Description: Ignoring the difference while focusing on the similarities, thus coming to an inaccurate conclusion.  Similar to the gambler’s fallacy, this is an example of inserting meaning into randomness.  This is also similar to the post-designation fallacy, but with the Texas sharpshooter fallacy the focus… Read More »Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy Summary

Survivorship Fallacy Summary

(also known as: survivorship bias) Description: This is best summed up as “dead men don’t tell tales.” In its general form, the survivorship fallacy is basing a conclusion on a limited number of “winner” testimonies due to the fact we cannot or do not hear the testimonies of the losers.… Read More »Survivorship Fallacy Summary

Suppressed Correlative Summary

(also known as: fallacy of lost contrast, fallacy of the suppressed relative) Description: The attempt to redefine a correlative (one of two mutually exclusive options) so that one alternative encompasses the other, i.e. making one alternative impossible. The redefinition, therefore, makes the word it is redefining essentially meaningless. Logical Form:… Read More »Suppressed Correlative Summary

Sunk-Cost Fallacy Summary

(also known as: argument from inertia, concorde fallacy, finish the job fallacy) Description: Reasoning that further investment is warranted on the fact that the resources already invested will be lost otherwise, not taking into consideration the overall losses involved in the further investment. Logical Form: X has already been invested… Read More »Sunk-Cost Fallacy Summary

Subverted Support Summary

Description: The attempt to explain some phenomenon that does not actually occur or there is no evidence that it does.  It is a form of begging the question. Logical Form: X happens because of Y (when X doesn’t really even happen) Example #1: The reason billions of children starve to… Read More »Subverted Support Summary

Style Over Substance Summary

(also known as: argument by slogan [form of], cliché thinking – or thought-terminating cliché, argument by rhyme [form of], argument by poetic language [form of]) Description: When the arguer embellishes the argument with compelling language or rhetoric, and/or visual aesthetics. This comes in many forms as described below. “If it… Read More »Style Over Substance Summary

Strawman Fallacy Summary

Description: Substituting a person’s actual position or argument with a distorted, exaggerated, or misrepresented version of the position of the argument. Logical Form: Person 1 makes claim Y. Person 2 restates person 1’s claim (in a distorted way). Person 2 attacks the distorted version of the claim. Therefore, claim Y… Read More »Strawman Fallacy Summary

Stereotyping Summary

Description: The general beliefs that we use to categorize people, objects, and events while assuming those beliefs are accurate generalizations of the whole group. Logical Form: All X’s have the property Y (this being a characterization, not a fact). Z  is an X. Therefore, Z has the property Y. Example… Read More »Stereotyping Summary