Wishful Thinking Summary

Description: When the desire for something to be true is used in place of/or as evidence for the truthfulness of the claim.  Wishful thinking, more as a cognitive bias than a logical fallacy, can also cause one to evaluate evidence very differently based on the desired outcome. Logical Form: I… Read More »Wishful Thinking Summary

Willed Ignorance Summary

Description: Refusing to change one’s mind or consider conflicting information based on a desire to maintain one’s existing beliefs. Logical Form: I believe X. You have evidence for Y. I don’t want to see it because I don’t want to stop believing in X, so X is still true. Example… Read More »Willed Ignorance Summary

Weak Analogy Summary

(also known as: bad analogy, false analogy, faulty analogy, questionable analogy, argument from spurious similarity, false metaphor) Description: When an analogy is used to prove or disprove an argument, but the analogy is too dissimilar to be effective, that is, it is unlike the argument more than it is like… Read More »Weak Analogy Summary

Use-Mention Error Summary

(also known as: UME) Description:  Confusing the word used to describe a thing, with the thing itself.  To avoid this error, it is customary to put the word used to describe the thing in quotes. This fallacy is most common when used as an equivocation. Logical Form: “X” is the… Read More »Use-Mention Error Summary

Unwarranted Contrast Summary

(also known as: some are/some are not) Description: Assuming that implicature means implication, when it logically does not.  Implicature is a relation between the fact that someone makes a statement and a proposition.  Implication is a relation between propositions, that is, the meanings of statements. Logical Forms: Some S are… Read More »Unwarranted Contrast Summary

Unfalsifiability Summary

(also known as: untestability) Description: Confidently asserting that a theory or hypothesis is true or false even though the theory or hypothesis cannot possibly be contradicted by an observation or the outcome of any physical experiment, usually without strong evidence or good reasons. Making unfalsifiable claims is a way to… Read More »Unfalsifiability Summary

Type-Token Fallacy Summary

Description: The type-token fallacy is committed when a word can refer to either a type (representing an abstract descriptive concept) or a token (representing an object that instantiates a concept) and is used in a way that makes it unclear which it refers to. This is a more specific form… Read More »Type-Token Fallacy Summary

Tokenism Summary

Description: Interpreting a token gesture as an adequate substitute for the real thing. Logical Form: Problem X exists. Solution Y is offered. Solution Y is inadequate to solve problem X but accepted as adequate. Example #1: The presidential nominee has been accused of being racist.  But he recently stated that… Read More »Tokenism Summary