What are Logical Fallacies?

In philosophy, a formal fallacy, deductive fallacy, logical fallacy or non sequitur is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic. It is defined as a deductive argument that is invalid.

What is the difference between Logical Fallacy & Cognitive Bias?

People sometimes confuse cognitive biases with logical fallacies, but the two are not the same. A logical fallacy stems from an error in a logical argument, while a cognitive bias is rooted in thought processing errors often arising from problems with memory, attention, attribution, and other mental mistakes.

Logical Fallacy Summaries

Faulty Comparison Summary

(also known as: bad comparison, false comparison, inconsistent comparison [form of]) Description: Co…

Far-Fetched Hypothesis Summary

Description: Offering a bizarre (far-fetched) hypothesis as the correct explanation without first ru…

Fantasy Projection Summary

Description: Confusing subjective experiences, usually very emotionally charged, with objective real…

False Equivalence Summary

Description: An argument or claim in which two completely opposing arguments appear to be logically …

False Effect Summary

Description: Claiming that the cause is true or false based on what we know about the effect in a cl…

Logical Fallacies

What is Abusive Analogy?

The fallacy of abusive analogy is a highly specialized version of the ad hominem argument. Instead o…

What is Accent?

The fallacy of accent depends for its effectiveness on the fact that the meaning of statements can c…

What is Accident?

The fallacy of accident supposes that the freak features of an exceptional case are enough to justif…

What is Affirming the Consequent?

To those who confuse hopelessly the order of horses and carts, affirming the consequent is a fallacy…

What is Amphiboly?

Amphiboly is the fallacy of ambiguous construction. It occurs whenever the whole meaning of a statem…

What is Analogical Fallacy?

The analogical fallacy consists of supposing that things which are similar in one respect must be si…

Logical Fallacy Book Recommendations

Being Logical: A Guide to Good Thinking
by D.Q. McInerny
Mastering Logical Fallacies: The Definitive Guide to Flawless Rhetoric and Bulletproof Logic
by Michael Withey
How to Win Every Argument: The Use and Abuse of Logic
by Madsen Pirie