What are Logical Fallacies?

In philosophy, a formal fallacy, deductive fallacy, logical fallacy or non sequitur is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic. It is defined as a deductive argument that is invalid.

What is the difference between Logical Fallacy & Cognitive Bias?

People sometimes confuse cognitive biases with logical fallacies, but the two are not the same. A logical fallacy stems from an error in a logical argument, while a cognitive bias is rooted in thought processing errors often arising from problems with memory, attention, attribution, and other mental mistakes.

Logical Fallacy Summaries

Wishful Thinking Summary

Description: When the desire for something to be true is used in place of/or as evidence for the truthfulness of the claim.  Wishful thinking, more as a cognitive bias than a logical fallacy, can…

Willed Ignorance Summary

Description: Refusing to change one’s mind or consider conflicting information based on a desire to maintain one’s existing beliefs. Logical Form: I believe X. You have evidence for Y. I don€â€¦

Weak Analogy Summary

(also known as: bad analogy, false analogy, faulty analogy, questionable analogy, argument from spurious similarity, false metaphor) Description: When an analogy is used to prove or disprove an argume…

Use-Mention Error Summary

(also known as: UME) Description:  Confusing the word used to describe a thing, with the thing itself.  To avoid this error, it is customary to put the word used to describe the thing in quo…

Unwarranted Contrast Summary

(also known as: some are/some are not) Description: Assuming that implicature means implication, when it logically does not.  Implicature is a relation between the fact that someone makes a state…

Logical Fallacies

What is Abusive Analogy?

The fallacy of abusive analogy is a highly specialized version of the ad hominem argument. Instead of the arguer being insulted directly, an analogy is drawn which is calculated to bring him into scor…

What is Accent?

The fallacy of accent depends for its effectiveness on the fact that the meaning of statements can change, depending on the stress put on the words. The accenting of certain words or phrases can give …

What is Accident?

The fallacy of accident supposes that the freak features of an exceptional case are enough to justify rejection of a general rule. The features in question may be ‘accidental’, having no b…

What is Affirming the Consequent?

To those who confuse hopelessly the order of horses and carts, affirming the consequent is a fallacy which comes naturally. An occupational hazard of those who engage in conditional arguments, this pa…

What is Amphiboly?

Amphiboly is the fallacy of ambiguous construction. It occurs whenever the whole meaning of a statement can be taken in more than one way, and is usually the fault of careless grammar.   The Duch…

What is Analogical Fallacy?

The analogical fallacy consists of supposing that things which are similar in one respect must be similar in others. It draws a comparison on the basis of what is known, and proceeds to assume that th…

Logical Fallacy Book Recommendations

Being Logical: A Guide to Good Thinking
by D.Q. McInerny
Mastering Logical Fallacies: The Definitive Guide to Flawless Rhetoric and Bulletproof Logic
by Michael Withey
How to Win Every Argument: The Use and Abuse of Logic
by Madsen Pirie